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【copula】在多语言下的意思、翻译、词源、用法、例句

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See also: cópula and copulá

英语(English)

English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia

词源(Etymology)

Borrowed from Latin copula (connection, linking of words), from co- (together) +‎ apere (fasten). Doublet of couple.

发音(Pronunciation)

名词(Noun)

copula (plural copulas or copulae)

Examples (grammar)

The night sky is black.
She was a good teacher.
The burning log turns black.

  1. (linguistics, grammar) A word, usually a verb, used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate (usually a subject complement or an adverbial), that unites or associates the subject with the predicate.
    • 1994, Randall Hendrick, 8: The Brythonic Celtic copula and head raising, David Lightfoot, Norbert Hornstein (editors), Verb Movement, page 163,
      I begin by arguing in section 2 that there are in fact at least two Celtic copulas, a grammatical copula that simply spells out tense and agreement, and a substantive copula formed on a lexically listed verbal stem.
    • 2002, Quentin Smith, Language and Time, page 189,
      The theory of conjunctively tensed copulae will be developed and stated with more precision in the following section.
    • 2003, Giuliano Bernini, The copula in learner Italian: Finiteness and verbal inflection, Christine Dimroth, Marianne Starren (editors), Information Structure and the Dynamics of Language Acquisition, page 159,
      This paper explores the position of the copula in the development of the verb system in second language acquisition of Italian.
    • 2006, Christine Czinglar, Antigone Katiĉić, Katharina Köhler, Chris Schaner-Wolles, Strategies in the L1-Acquisition of Predication: The Copula Construction in German and Croatian, Natalia Gagarina, Insa Gülzow (editors), page 95,
      The present study focuses on the acquisition of a specific verbal element, namely the copula, in predicative constructions in a cross-linguistic perspective (English, German, Croatian).
  2. (statistics) A function that represents the association between two or more variables, independent of the individual marginal distributions of the variables.
    • 2009 March 10, Dennis Overbye, “Mathematical Model and the Mortgage Mess”, in New York Times[1]:
      In 2000, David X. Li, a banker with a doctorate in statistics who was then at RiskMetrics, part of J. P. Morgan Chase, began using mathematical functions called Gaussian copulas to estimate the likelihood of corporations’ dying in unison.
    • 2009, N. Balakrishnan, Chin-Diew Lai, Continuous Bivariate Distributions, page 59,
      There is little statistical theoretical theory for copulas. Sensitivity studies of estimation procedures and goodness-of-fit tests for copulas are unknown.
    • 2011, Julian Shaw, Chapter 16: Julian Shaw, Richard R. Lindsey, Barry Schachter (editors), How I Became a Quant: Insights from 25 of Wall Street's Elite, page 240,
      Copulas provide an example of the haphazard evolution of quantitative finance. The key result is Sklar's theorem, which says that one can characterize any multivariate probability distribution by its copula (which specifies the correlation structure) and its marginal distributions (the conditional one dimensional distributions). Thus one can create multivariate distributions by mixing and matching copulas and marginal distributions.
    • 2011, Ostap Okhrin, Chapter 17: Fitting High-Dimensional Copulae to Data, Jin-Chuan Duan, Wolfgang Karl Härdle, James E. Gentle (editors), Handbook of Computational Finance, page 482,
      A recently developed flexible method is provided by hierarchical Archimedean copulae (HAC).
  3. (music) A device that connects two or more keyboards of an organ.
  4. (biology) The act of copulation; mating.

同义词(Synonyms)

衍生词(Derived terms)

关联词(Related terms)

翻译(Translations)

查看更多(See also)

来源参考(References)

变位词(Anagrams)


Catalan

动词(Verb)

copula

  1. third-person singular present indicative form of copular
  2. second-person singular imperative form of copular

Dutch

词源(Etymology)

Ultimately from Latin copula. This etymology is incomplete. You can help Wiktionary by elaborating on the origins of this term.

发音(Pronunciation)

  • IPA(key): /ˈkoː.py.laː/
  • Hyphenation: co‧pu‧la

名词(Noun)

copula f (plural copula's or copulae)

  1. (grammar) copula
  2. (ichthyology, dated) a connective segment or piece of tissue, usually of cartilage, chiefly in fish

衍生词(Derived terms)


French

发音(Pronunciation)

动词(Verb)

copula

  1. third-person singular past historic of copuler

Italian

发音(Pronunciation)

  • IPA(key): /ˈkɔ.pu.la/, [ˈkɔːpul̺ä]
  • Rhymes: -ɔpula
  • Hyphenation: cò‧pu‧la

词源1(Etymology 1)

Borrowed from Latin cōpula, contraction of an earlier form *coapula, derived from con- (together) + apō (I join).. Doublet of coppia.

名词(Noun)

copula f (plural copule)

  1. copula
  2. conjunction
关联词(Related terms)

词源2(Etymology 2)

See the etymology of the main entry.

动词(Verb)

copula

  1. inflection of copulare:
    1. third-person singular present indicative
    2. second-person singular imperative

变位词(Anagrams)


Latin

词源(Etymology)

Contraction of *coapula, from con- (together) + apō (I join).

发音(Pronunciation)

名词(Noun)

cōpula f (genitive cōpulae); first declension

  1. A bond, tie, or other connecting item.

变化形式(Declension)

First-declension noun.

Case Singular Plural
Nominative cōpula cōpulae
Genitive cōpulae cōpulārum
Dative cōpulae cōpulīs
Accusative cōpulam cōpulās
Ablative cōpulā cōpulīs
Vocative cōpula cōpulae

衍生词(Derived terms)

派生词(Descendants)

  • Catalan: cobla, colla, còpula
  • English: copula
  • French: copule
  • Friulian: cubie
  • Irish: copail
  • Italian: coppia
  • Italian: copula

来源参考(References)


Portuguese

动词(Verb)

copula

  1. third-person singular (ele and ela, also used with você and others) present indicative of copular
  2. second-person singular (tu, sometimes used with você) affirmative imperative of copular

Spanish

发音(Pronunciation)

动词(Verb)

copula

  1. Informal second-person singular () affirmative imperative form of copular.
  2. Formal second-person singular (usted) present indicative form of copular.
  3. Third-person singular (él, ella, also used with usted?) present indicative form of copular.

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