万维词典

【-al】在多语言下的意思、翻译、词源、用法、例句

英语(English)

词源1(Etymology 1)

From Middle English -al, from the Latin adjective suffix -ālis, or French, Middle French and Old French -el, -al. Likely, the aforementioned Latin suffix is formed from Etruscan genitive suffix -l (as in Etruscan ati (mother) / atial (mother's)) + adjectival suffix -is (as in fortis, dēbilis, etc.).

替代形式(Alternative forms)

发音(Pronunciation)

Suffix

-al

  1. Of or pertaining to. Adjectival suffix appended to various words, often nouns, to make an adjective form. Often added to words of Latin origin, but used with other words also.
    base + ‎-al → ‎basal
    cranium + ‎-al → ‎cranial
  2. Forming nouns, especially of verbal action.
    propose + ‎-al → ‎proposal
    deny + ‎-al → ‎denial
用法注意(Usage notes)

If the root word contains l, the variant -ar is often used instead (e.g. solar, lunar, columnar, lumbar), unless the root contains r after the l (lateral, plural). Sometimes both forms are found: linear, lineal. One also sees -ial, as in manorial.

As nominalizer, some verbs have two corresponding nouns, one ending in -al and the other in -tion/-sion (more common suffix), with one or the other being more common, sometimes with different nuances. Notable examples: disposition/disposal (dispose), proposition/proposal (propose), submission/submittal (submit), transmission/transmittal (transmit). Some superficial pairs are actually of different origin, notably reversion/reversal (revert/reverse, not both from reverse).

衍生词(Derived terms)

查看更多(See also)

词源2(Etymology 2)

Extracted from the word aldehyde.

发音(Pronunciation)

Suffix

-al

  1. (organic chemistry) Forms the names of aldehydes.
翻译(Translations)

变位词(Anagrams)


Abenaki

Suffix

-al

  1. A suffix used to form the plurals of inanimate words.
    pessimen (currant)pessimenal (currants)
    wôbigen (it is white)wôbigenal (they are white)

用法注意(Usage notes)

  • -al is the most common suffix used to form the plurals of inanimate words, including most body parts and some words ending in the vowel a.
  • See the usage notes at -ak.

Catalan

词源(Etymology)

From Latin -ālis.

发音(Pronunciation)

Suffix

-al (masculine and feminine plural -als)

  1. In adjectives, indicating relation.
    estructura (structure)estructural (structural).

衍生词(Derived terms)


Danish

Suffix

-al

  1. (organic chemistry) -al

Dutch

发音(Pronunciation)

  • IPA(key): /ɑl/

Suffix

-al

  1. (organic chemistry) -al

同义词(Synonyms)

衍生词(Derived terms)


Esperanto

Suffix

-al

  1. for [...] reason (ending for correlatives of reason)

衍生词(Derived terms)

  • alial (for another reason)
  • ĉial (for every reason)
  • ial (for any/some reason)
  • kial (for what reason, why)
  • nenial (for no reason)
  • tial (for that reason, therefore)

French

词源(Etymology)

From Middle French, from Old French -al, borrowed from Latin -ālis. Cognate to French -el, which is also from Latin -ālis but inherited (not borrowed).

发音(Pronunciation)

Suffix

-al m (feminine -ale) (feminine plural: -ales; masculine plural: -aux;)

  1. -al (of or pertaining to; adjectival suffix appended to various words, often nouns, to make an adjective form. Often added to words of Latin origin, but used with other words also)

派生词(Descendants)

  • Norwegian Bokmål: -al

衍生词(Derived terms)


German

词源(Etymology)

Borrowed from Latin -ālis.

发音(Pronunciation)

Suffix

-al

  1. pertaining to, using; adjectival suffix appended to nouns

衍生词(Derived terms)


Hungarian

词源(Etymology)

-a- + -l

发音(Pronunciation)

Suffix

-al

  1. (verb-forming suffix) Added to a noun to form a verb.
    szárny (a wing)szárnyal (to soar)
  2. (noun-forming suffix) Added to a verb to form a noun (no longer productive in this role).
    von (to pull)vonal (line)
  3. (organic chemistry) -al (forms the names of aldehydes)
    etanalethanal

用法注意(Usage notes)

  • (verb-forming suffix) Harmonic variants:
    -l is added to words ending in a vowel. Final -a changes to -á-. Final -e changes to -é-. Final long vowels may shorten, e.g. űü.
    -ol is added to some back-vowel words ending in a consonant
    -al is added to other back-vowel words ending in a consonant
    -el is added to unrounded (and some rounded) front-vowel words ending in a consonant
    -öl is added to most rounded front-vowel words ending in a consonant
    -ál is added to some back-vowel words ending in a consonant

Note: Certain words take another, synonymous suffix, -z/-oz/-az/-ez/-öz/-áz or -zik/-ozik/-azik/-ezik/-özik.

  • (noun-forming suffix) Harmonic variants:
    -al is added to back-vowel words
    -el is added to front-vowel words

衍生词(Derived terms)

查看更多(See also)


K'iche'

发音(Pronunciation)

Suffix

-al

  1. Forms nouns from adjectives
    tew (cold) + ‎-al → ‎tewal (coldness)
    k’ak’ (new) + ‎-al → ‎k’ak’al (youngster)
  2. Forms nouns from -aj verb suffix
    mujaj (to shade) + ‎-al → ‎mujaj (shadow)
    q’ebaj (to go across) + ‎-al → ‎q’ebal (large earthen jar)
  3. Forms nouns from adverbs
    nojim (slowly) + ‎-al → ‎nojimal (slowness)
    nabe (firstly) + ‎-al → ‎nabeal (firstborn)
  4. Forms nouns from nouns
    k’o’x (gourd cup) + ‎-al → ‎k’o’xal (shell of a dead animal)
    süb (tamalito of corn) + ‎-al → ‎sübal (pot for making tamales)

来源参考(References)


Lepontic

Suffix

-al (-al)

  1. Romanization of -𐌀𐌋

Manx

替代形式(Alternative forms)

Suffix 1

词源1(Etymology 1)

Extracted from goaill.

-al f

  1. suffix used to form verbal nouns

Suffix 2

词源2(Etymology 2)

Extracted from goaill.

-al

  1. suffix used productively to form denominative verbs and their associated verbal nouns
    yiarn (iron) + ‎-al → ‎yiarnal (to iron)
    post (post) + ‎-al → ‎postal (to post)

Suffix 3

词源3(Etymology 3)

From Middle Irish -amail (compare Irish -úil, Scottish Gaelic -ail, -eil), from Old Irish -amail.

-al

  1. An adjectival suffix applied to various words, usually nouns, to make an adjective.

查看更多(See also)


Munsee

Suffix

-al

  1. A suffix used to form the plurals of inanimate words.
    síipuw (river)siipúwal (rivers)
    máxkeew (it is red)maxkéewal (they are red)

用法注意(Usage notes)

  • -al is the most common suffix used to form the plurals of inanimate words, including most body parts and some words ending in the vowel a.

Norman

词源(Etymology)

From Old French -al, from Latin -ālis.

Suffix

-al

  1. -al (of or pertaining to; adjectival suffix appended to various words, often nouns, to make an adjective form)

衍生词(Derived terms)


Old French

替代形式(Alternative forms)

词源(Etymology)

Borrowed from Latin -ālis. Compare the inherited -el.

Suffix

-al

  1. suffix used to form adjectives from nouns
    mesnaldomestic; household
    (from mesnee)

派生词(Descendants)

  • Middle French: -al

Polish

词源(Etymology)

From Proto-Slavic *-aľь.

发音(Pronunciation)

Suffix

-al m

  1. Forms masculine nouns.

变化形式(Declension)

Animate/personal:

Inanimate:

Surnames:

衍生词(Derived terms)


Portuguese

发音(Pronunciation)

词源1(Etymology 1)

From Old Portuguese -al, from Latin -ālis.

Suffix

-al (plural -ais)

  1. appended to noun X, forms adjectives meaning “of or pertaining to X”
    abismo (abyss) + ‎-al → ‎abismal (abyssal; abysmal)
    indústria (factory; industry) + ‎-al → ‎industrial (industrial)
  2. forms synonyms of adjectives containing the suffix -ico
    angélico (angelic) + ‎-al → ‎angelical (angelical)
  3. appended to noun X, forms nouns meaning “a collection X” or “a large quantity of X”
    ninho (nest) + ‎-al → ‎ninhal (a bunch of nests)
    edito (edict) + ‎-al → ‎edital (notice board)
  4. appended to noun X, forms nouns meaning “a place where there is plenty of X”
    pedra (rock) + ‎-al → ‎pedregal (a rocky field)
    colmeia (beehive) + ‎-al → ‎colmeal (a place with many beehives)
  5. appended to the name of a plant, forms nouns meaning “a field where that plant is cultivated”
    trigo (wheat) + ‎-al → ‎trigal (wheatfield)
    sobreiro (cork oak) + ‎-al → ‎sobreiral (an orchard of cork oaks)
同义词(Synonyms)

词源2(Etymology 2)

From the first syllable of álcool (alcohol) and aldeído (aldehyde).

Suffix

-al m

  1. (chemistry) forms the names of alcohols
  2. (chemistry) forms the names of aldehydes

Spanish

词源(Etymology)

From Latin -ālis.

Suffix

-al (plural -ales)

  1. In adjectives, indicating relation.
    cultura (culture) + ‎-al → ‎cultural (cultural)

Suffix

-al m (plural -ales)

  1. In nouns, indicating a place where something is grown.
    maíz (corn) + ‎-al → ‎maizal (corn field)
    naranja (orange) + ‎-al → ‎naranjal (orange grove)
    Synonym: -ar

衍生词(Derived terms)

查看更多(Further reading)


Swedish

Suffix

-al

  1. -al, of or pertaining to; forming an adjective from a noun

衍生词(Derived terms)

查看更多(See also)


变位词(Anagrams)


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