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【-us】在多语言下的意思、翻译、词源、用法、例句

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(Translingual)

词源(Etymology)

From Latin -us.

Suffix

-us

  1. (taxonomy) Used to form taxonomic names.

衍生词(Derived terms)



Esperanto

词源(Etymology)

The Esperanto suffixes -as, -is, -os, and -us are related and appear to have been inspired by previous language projects:

This play of vowels is not an original idea of Zamenhof's: -as, -is, -os are found for the three tenses of the infinitive in Faiguet's system of 1765; -a, -i, -o without a consonant are used like Z's -as, -is, -os by Rudelle (1858); Courtonne in 1885 had -am, -im, -om in the same values, and the similarity with Esperanto is here even more perfect than in the other projects, as -um corresponds to Z's -us.An International Language (1928)

In addition, the u of -us is likely to be related to -u.

Suffix

-us

  1. Ending of the conditional in verbs.

Estonian

词源(Etymology)

Cognate with Finnish -us.

Suffix

-us (genitive -use, partitive -ust)

  1. Derives nouns from verbs.
    armastama "to love" → armastus "love"
    võistlema "to compete" → võistlus "competition"
    joonistama "to draw" → joonistus "a drawing"
  2. Derives nouns from adjectives.
    aus "honest" → ausus "honesty"
    pikk "long" → pikkus "length"

变化形式(Declension)

衍生词(Derived terms)



Finnish

词源1(Etymology 1)

From Proto-Finnic *-us, generalized from -s-derivatives of u-stem verbs (e.g. ihastuaihastus, menestyämenestys) and nominals (e.g. etu-edus, palvelupalvelus), or through the loss of a plain u-derivative from the standard language (e.g. keski- → dial. kesku-keskus). Compare -os.

Suffix

-us (front vowel harmony variant -ys)

  1. Forms nouns from verbs, describing an action or event.
    kuvata (to describe)kuvaus (description)
    pakata (to pack)pakkaus (package)
    ylentää (to promote)ylennys (promotion)
    hälyttää (to alarm)hälytys (an alarm)
  2. Forms nouns, indicating resemblance or association.
    kanta (base)kannus (spur)
    sormi (finger)sormus (ring)
    vasta- (counter-)vastus (resistance, opposition)
    kehä (circle, ring)kehys (frame)
    syli (bosom, lap)sylys (armful)
    typerä (stupid)typerys (fool)
变化形式(Declension)
Inflection of -us (Kotus type 39/vastaus, no gradation)
nominative -us -ukset
genitive -uksen -usten
-uksien
partitive -usta -uksia
illative -ukseen -uksiin
singular plural
nominative -us -ukset
accusative nom. -us -ukset
gen. -uksen
genitive -uksen -usten
-uksien
partitive -usta -uksia
inessive -uksessa -uksissa
elative -uksesta -uksista
illative -ukseen -uksiin
adessive -uksella -uksilla
ablative -ukselta -uksilta
allative -ukselle -uksille
essive -uksena -uksina
translative -ukseksi -uksiksi
instructive -uksin
abessive -uksetta -uksitta
comitative -uksineen
Possessive forms of -us (type vastaus)
possessor singular plural
1st person -ukseni -uksemme
2nd person -uksesi -uksenne
3rd person -uksensa
同义词(Synonyms)
  • -mus (used with "sallia"-, and certain "sanoa"- and "muistaa"-type verbs)
衍生词(Derived terms)


词源2(Etymology 2)

See the etymology of -uus.

Suffix

-us (front vowel harmony variant -ys)

  1. Short form of the suffix -uus, used where the stem of the root adjective ends in a vowel.
变化形式(Declension)
Inflection of -us (Kotus type 40/kalleus, t-d gradation)
nominative -us -udet
genitive -uden -uksien
partitive -utta -uksia
illative -uteen -uksiin
singular plural
nominative -us -udet
accusative nom. -us -udet
gen. -uden
genitive -uden -uksien
partitive -utta -uksia
inessive -udessa -uksissa
elative -udesta -uksista
illative -uteen -uksiin
adessive -udella -uksilla
ablative -udelta -uksilta
allative -udelle -uksille
essive -utena -uksina
translative -udeksi -uksiksi
instructive -uksin
abessive -udetta -uksitta
comitative -uksineen
Possessive forms of -us (type kalleus)
possessor singular plural
1st person -uteni -utemme
2nd person -utesi -utenne
3rd person -utensa
衍生词(Derived terms)


变位词(Anagrams)


Hungarian

词源(Etymology)

-u (diminutive suffix) + -s (diminutive suffix)[1]

发音(Pronunciation)

Suffix

-us

  1. (diminutive suffix) Added to a proper noun or other nouns to create a diminutive noun.
    Teréz (Theresa)Terus (Tess)
    apa (father)apus (dad)
    cica (cat)cicus (kitty)
    kutya (dog)kutyus (pooch, puppy)
  2. A distinguishable foreign word ending in nouns. It cannot be considered as an independent Hungarian suffix.
    agronómus (agronomist)

用法注意(Usage notes)

(diminutive suffix): It creates diminutive or affectionate forms, most of the time of people's given names, but also of common nouns, usually ending in a. Other examples: Anna → Annus, Magda → Magdus, Gyula → Gyulus. The -ka diminutive suffix can also be appended after -us to further increase the degree of endearment: apuska, cicuska, kutyuska, Annuska, Magduska.

衍生词(Derived terms)


查看更多(See also)

来源参考(References)

  1. ^ Zaicz, Gábor. Etimológiai szótár: Magyar szavak és toldalékok eredete (’Dictionary of Etymology: The origin of Hungarian words and affixes’). Budapest: Tinta Könyvkiadó, 2006, →ISBN

Latin

词源(Etymology)

From Old Latin -os, from Proto-Italic *-os, from Proto-Indo-European *-ós (adjectival ending). Cognate with Ancient Greek -ος (-os), Proto-Germanic *-az, Icelandic -ur.

发音(Pronunciation)

Suffix

-us (feminine -a, neuter -um); first/second-declension suffix

  1. suffix forming adjectives from nouns, verbs, adverbs, and combinations thereof, alike

变化形式(Declension)

First/second-declension adjective.

Number Singular Plural
Case / Gender Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative -us -a -um -ae -a
Genitive -ae -ōrum -ārum -ōrum
Dative -īs
Accusative -um -am -um -ōs -ās -a
Ablative -īs
Vocative -e -a -um -ae -a

衍生词(Derived terms)


查看更多(See also)

来源参考(References)


Lithuanian

词源1(Etymology 1)

Ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *-ós (adjectival ending). Pairs such as lañkas (bend) : lankùs (flexible) find parallels in Sanskrit रुधिर (rúdhira-, blood) : रुधिर (rudhirá-, red), Ancient Greek δόλιχος (dólikhos, a long run) : δολιχός (dolikhós, long) and suggest that oxytone stress was used to mark adjectives in Proto-Indo-European. In Proto-Balto-Slavic, the raising of *o to *u must have been conditioned by stress, with the ending *-os giving Lithuanian -ùs under stress and -as otherwise.[1]

发音(Pronunciation)

Suffix

-ùs m stress pattern 4

  1. Adjectival suffix, applied to verbal and nominal roots to denote a disposal or tendency towards something
    ardýti (take apart)ardùs (crumbly)
    kalbėti (talk)kalbùs (talkative)
变化形式(Declension)
衍生词(Derived terms)
  • -usis

词源2(Etymology 2)

From Proto-Balto-Slavic *-us, reflecting Proto-Indo-European u-stems.

替代形式(Alternative forms)

发音(Pronunciation)

Suffix

-us, -ùs m

  1. Masculine nominal singular ending for u-stem nouns and adjectives.
    alùs (beer) (< Proto-Indo-European *h₂elu-)
    sūnùs (son) (< Proto-Indo-European *suHnús)
变化形式(Declension)

(noun):

(adjective):

词源3(Etymology 3)

From an older *-uos (compare the pronominal ending -uosius). From Proto-Balto-Slavic *-ons; compare Latvian -us, Old Prussian -ans, Proto-Slavic *-y. From Proto-Indo-European *-ons (accusative plural ending), also reflected in Ancient Greek -ους (-ous), Latin -ōs, Sanskrit -आन् (-ān) and Gothic -𐌰𐌽𐍃 (-ans).

替代形式(Alternative forms)

发音(Pronunciation)

Suffix

-us, -ùs

  1. Used to form accusative plurals of masculine a- and u-stem nouns.
  2. Used to form accusative plurals of masculine a-stem adjectives.
衍生词(Derived terms)
  • -uosius

词源4(Etymology 4)

Cognate with Russian (-v), Bulgarian -вш (-vš). See also -usi. This etymology is incomplete. You can help Wiktionary by elaborating on the origins of this term.

替代形式(Alternative forms)

发音(Pronunciation)

Suffix

-us

  1. Used to form the past adverbial (padalyvis) participle
    bū́ti (to be)bùvo (was)bùvus (having been)
    slė̃pti (hide)past frequentative slė̃pdavo (hid)slė̃pdavus (having hid)

关联词(Related terms)

  • -ęs

来源参考(References)

  1. ^ Eugen Hill. (2013) 'Historical phonology in service of subgrouping. Two laws of final syllables in the common prehistory of baltic and slavonic'. Baltistica, volume 48, number 2, p. 161-204

Middle Welsh

词源(Etymology)

From Proto-Brythonic *-ʉs, from Latin -ōsus.[1] Cognate with Cornish -us.

Suffix

-us

  1. -ous, full of, prone to; used to form adjectives from nouns

衍生词(Derived terms)


派生词(Descendants)

  • Welsh: -us

来源参考(References)

  1. ^ J. Morris Jones, A Welsh Grammar, Historical and Comparative (Oxford 1913), § 153 i 13.

Northern Sami

词源(Etymology)

From Proto-Samic *-ōksë.

发音(Pronunciation)

Phonetik.svg This entry needs pronunciation information. If you are familiar with the IPA then please add some!

Suffix

-us

  1. Forms nouns from verbs, indicating something that is to have the verb's action performed on it.
    vuošˈšat (to cook) + ‎-us → ‎vuoššus (something to be cooked)
    muitalit (to tell) + ‎-us → ‎muitalus (something to be told; story)
  2. Forms nouns from verbs, indicating something that results from having the verb's action performed.
    juohkit (to divide) + ‎-us → ‎juogus (division, section)

用法注意(Usage notes)

This suffix triggers the weak grade on a preceding stressed syllable in the nominative singular and essive, and the strong grade in the other forms.

When attached to even-syllable stems, there is diphthong simplification in all forms except the nominative singular and essive.

Inflection

For even-syllable stems:

Odd, no gradation
Nominative -us
Genitive -usa
Singular Plural
Nominative -us -usat
Accusative -usa -usiid
Genitive -usa -usiid
Illative -usii -usiidda
Locative -usis -usiin
Comitative -usiin -usiiguin
Essive -usin
Possessive forms
Singular Dual Plural
1st person -usan -useamẹ -useamẹt
2nd person -usat -useattẹ -useattẹt
3rd person -usis -useaskkạ -useasẹt

For odd-syllable stems:

Even a-stem, ss-s gradation
Nominative -us
Genitive -usa
Singular Plural
Nominative -us -usat
Accusative -usa -usaid
Genitive -usa -usaid
Illative -ussii -usaide
Locative -usas -usain
Comitative -usain -usaiguin
Essive -ussan
Possessive forms
Singular Dual Plural
1st person -ussan -ussame -ussamet
2nd person -ussat -ussade -ussadet
3rd person -ussas -ussaska -ussaset

衍生词(Derived terms)



Old French

替代形式(Alternative forms)

词源(Etymology)

From Latin -ōsus.

Suffix

-us

  1. -ous, used for forming adjectives

衍生词(Derived terms)


派生词(Descendants)


Old Irish

词源1(Etymology 1)

From Proto-Celtic *-es-tus

发音(Pronunciation)

Suffix

-us

  1. Alternative form of -as

词源2(Etymology 2)

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Suffix

-us (suffixed pronoun)

  1. her (object pronoun), it (in reference to a feminine noun)
  2. them
衍生词(Derived terms)


查看更多(See also)

Polish

发音(Pronunciation)

Suffix

-us

  1. derogatory suffix
  2. demonym suffix

用法注意(Usage notes)

Usually creates colloqiual words that have pejorative or offensive meaning, such as arabus or bambus. More rarely, creates demonyms, for example krakus.

衍生词(Derived terms)



Welsh

词源(Etymology)

From Middle Welsh -us, from Proto-Brythonic *-ʉs, from Latin -ōsus.[1] Cognate with Cornish -us.

发音(Pronunciation)

Suffix

-us

  1. adjectival suffix often indicating a characteristic, propensity or abundance
    blas (taste) + ‎-us → ‎blasus (tasty)
    gwybod (to know) + ‎-us → ‎gwybodus (knowledgeable)
    anffawd (misfortune) + ‎-us → ‎anffodus (unfortunate)

衍生词(Derived terms)


查看更多(Further reading)

  • R. J. Thomas, G. A. Bevan, P. J. Donovan, A. Hawke et al., editors (1950–present) , “-us”, in Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru Online (in Welsh), University of Wales Centre for Advanced Welsh & Celtic Studies

来源参考(References)

  1. ^ J. Morris Jones, A Welsh Grammar, Historical and Comparative (Oxford 1913), § 153 i 13.

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