万维词典

【Appendix:Portuguese pronunciation】在多语言下的意思、翻译、词源、用法、例句

This page is a guide for reading and adding Portuguese IPA pronunciations. Unless noted otherwise, the information here refers only to Standard European Portuguese and Standard Brazilian Portuguese. See Portuguese phonology.

Phonemes

The transcriptions in the second column are non-canonical and should be replaced by those in the first one.

canonical
transcription
other broad
transcriptions
orthographical
representation
narrow
transcriptions
notes
/a/ a, á, à [a], [ä] Allophone [ɑ] may occur before /w/, /l/ at the end of a syllable.
/ɐ/ /ə/, /ɜ/, /ʌ/ a, â [ə], [ɜ], [ɐ] Also written "e" in the context of sequences of "e" plus "i" or "í" in European Portuguese Allophone [ʌ] only in the Lisbon dialect.
/ɐ̃/ /ə̃/, /ɜ̃/ ã, â, am, an, âm, ân [ə̃], [ɜ̃], [ɐ̃]
[ə̃ɰ̃], [ɜ̃ɰ̃]
[ɐ̃ɰ̃], [əə̯̃]
[ɜə̯̃], [ɐə̯̃]
[əə̯̃ɰ̃], [ɜə̯̃ɰ̃], [ɐə̯̃ɰ̃]
/ɛ/ e, é [ɛ] May diphthongize to [ɛə̯] or be lowered to [æ]. Allophone [e̞] in Brazil due to complimentary distribution with /e/, /ɨ/ in unstressed position.
/e/ e, ê [e] May diphthongize to [eə̯]. Allophone [e̞] in Brazil due to complimentary distribution with /ɛ/ in unstressed position.
/ẽ/ em, en, ên, êm, ém [ẽ], [ẽɰ̟̃]
[eə̯̃], [eə̯̃ɰ̟̃]
The /j̃/ that follows /ẽ/ in some cases needs to be transcribed separately May be lowered to [ẽ̞], [ɛ̃].
/ɨ/ /ɯ/, /ə/ e, i [ɯ̽] European Portuguese
/i/ /ɪ/ i, e [i], [ɪ]
/ĩ/ i, in, im, en, em [ɪ̃], [ɪ̃ɰ̟̃]
[ɪj̃], [ɪ̃j̃]
/ɔ/ o, ó [ɔ] May diphthongize to [ɔə̯]. Allophone [o̞] in Brazil due to complimentary distribution with /o/ in unstressed position.
/o/ o, ô [o] May diphthongize to [oə̯]. Allophone [o̞] in Brazil due to complimentary distribution with /ɔ/ in unstressed position.
/õ/ õ, om, on, ôm, ôn [õ], [õɰ̃]
[oə̯̃], [oə̯̃ɰ̃]
[õʊ̯̃], [õw̃]
May be lowered to [õ̞], [ɔ̃].
/u/ /ʊ/ o, u, ú [u], [ʊ] Should not be used for /w/ [y] only in the Azores and some dialects of European Portuguese. [ø] in the Azores and some European dialects.
/ũ/ um, un, úm, ún [ʊ̃], [ʊ̃ɰ̃], [ʊw̃]
/m/ m [m]
/n/ n [n̪] In Brazil, [ɲ̟] allophone before /i/, /ĩ/ is prevalent among most consistent users of [tʃ], [dʒ] before the same vowel phonemes. Other speakers have alveolar [n͇] instead.
/ɲ/ /j̃/ nh [ɲ], [j̃], [ɲ̟] Alveolo-palatal [ɲ̟] only at the start of non-native words in Brazil, otherwise only present as the sound of the sequence /nj/.
/p/ p [p]
/b/ b [b], [β] [β] allophone appears only in European Portuguese
/t/ t [t̪] Alveolar [t͇] allophone is generalized among Brazilians who do not affricate it before /i/, /ĩ/.
/d/ d [d̪], [ð] Alveolar [d͇] allophone is generalized among Brazilians who do not affricate it before /i/, /ĩ/. [ð] allophone appears only in European Portuguese
/k/ c, qu, k [k]
/ɡ/ /ɡ/ g, gu [ɡ], [ɣ] [ɣ] allophone appears only in European Portuguese
/t͡ʃ/ /tʃ/ t, tch, ch [t͡ʃʷ], [t͡ɕʷ] Brazilian Portuguese; usually considered an allophone of /t/ Ch in some less standard dialects of both European and Brazilian Portuguese, merged with /ʃ/ for most speakers.
/d͡ʒ/ /dʒ/ d, dj [d͡ʒʷ], [d͡ʑʷ] Brazilian Portuguese; usually considered an allophone of /d/
/f/ f [f]
/v/ v [v]
/s/ s, ss, ç, z, x [s], [s̺] [s̺] allophone appears only in Northern dialects of European Portuguese
/z/ s, z, x [z]
/ʃ/ x, ch, s [ʃʷ], [ɕʷ]
/ʒ/ j, g, s [ʒʷ], [ʑʷ]
/ʁ/ /r/, /h/, /x/, /χ/, /ř/ r, rr [x], [ʁ], [ʀ], [r], [h], [ħ], [ɦ]
[ɹ], [ɻ], [ɾ], [χ]
/ɾ/ /r/ r [ɾ]
/l/ l [l], [ɫ]
/ʎ/ lh [ʎ], [ʎ̟]
/w/ /u/, /ʊ/, /u̯/, /ʊ̯/, /ʷ/ u, l, o, ü [w], [u̯], [ʊ̯]
/w̃/ /w/, /u/, /ʊ/, /u̯/, /ʊ̯/
/ũ/, /ʊ̃/, /ũ̯/, /ʊ̯̃/
o, m [ʊ̯̃] usually considered an allophone of /w/ following a nasal vowel
/j/ /i/, /i̯/, /ɪ̯/, /ɪ/, /ʲ/ i [j], [i̯], [ɪ̯]
/j̃/ /j/, /i/, /i̯/, /ɪ̯/, /ɪ/
/ĩ/, /ĩ̯/, /ɪ̯̃/, /ɪ̃/
e, i, ∅ [ɪ̯̃] usually considered an allophone of /j/ following a nasal vowel


Issues

Alternative pronunciations

context standard treatment example
in most variations of Brazilian Portuguese, there are two ways to pronounce the prefix "des-" each case is listed individually desligarIPA(key): /dez.li.ˈɡa(ʁ)/, /d͡ʒis.liˈɡa(ʁ)/
unstressed /i/, /u/ sometimes become /j/, /w/ when followed by another vowel, especially in relaxed, less formal pronunciation each case is listed individually águia/ˈa.ɡi.ɐ/, /ˈa.ɡjɐ/
in extra-careful Brazilian pronunciation, word-final vowel reduction is sometimes undone; usually /ɐ/ becomes /a/, more rarely /u/ becomes /o/ and /i/ becomes /e/ not indicated casa/ˈka.zɐ/, not /ˈka.za/
/lj/, /nj/ become /ʎ/, /ɲ/ in careless pronunciation only indicated when it is relatively common família/fa.ˈmi.li.ɐ/, /fa.ˈmi.ljɐ/, /fa.ˈmi.ʎɐ/
mid-word /o/ and /e/ sometimes become /u/ and /i/ in Brazilian Portuguese, often due to vowel harmony each case is listed individually dormir/doʁ.ˈmi(ʁ)/, /duʁ.ˈmi(ʁ)/
for some Brazilian speakers, a vowel becomes slightly nasalised preceding a nasal consonant not indicated dono/ˈdo.nu/, not /ˈdõ.nu/
semivowels between vowels are geminated not indicated caia/ˈkaj.ɐ/, not /ˈkaj.jɐ/
/k/ and /ɡ/ followed by /w/ may be pronounced as a rounded consonant not indicated quando/ˈkwɐ̃.du/, not /ˈkʷɐ̃.du/

Dropped and intrusive phonemes

context standard treatment example
in more careful Brazilian pronunciations, /n/ is added between a nasal vowel and a consonant during gerunds not indicated deixando/de(j)ˈʃɐ̃du/, not /de(j)ˈʃɐ̃ndu/
in less formal Brazilian pronunciations, /j/ is dropped from /ej/ before certain consonants parentheses manteiga/mɐ̃.ˈte(j).ɡɐ/
in less formal Brazilian pronunciations, /d/ is sometimes replaced with /n/ at the end of gerunds not indicated andando/ɐ̃ˈdɐ̃du/, not /ɐ̃ˈdɐ̃nu/
in less formal pronunciations, /j/ is dropped before /ʃ/ and /ʒ/ parentheses caixa/ˈka(j).ʃɐ/
for some speakers of European Portuguese, /j/ is added before /ʃ/ and /ʒ/ parentheses seja/ˈsɐ(j).ʒɐ/
in less formal Brazilian pronunciations, final /ʁ/ is dropped from certain verb forms parentheses fazer/fa.ˈze(ʁ)/
in Brazilian Portuguese, /j/ is usually added before stressed, word-final /s/ that is not a desinence parentheses francês/fɾɐ̃.ˈse(j)s/
in Brazilian Portuguese, /j̃/ is added after /ẽ/ sometimes not indicated entrar/ẽ.ˈtɾa(ʁ)/, not /ẽj̃.ˈtɾa(ʁ)/
in Brazilian Portuguese, /w̃/ is added after /õ/ sometimes not indicated bomba/ˈbõ.bɐ/, not /ˈbõw̃.bɐ/
in careless pronunciation, /j/ after a palatal is dropped not indicated régio/ˈʁɛ.ʒi.u/, /ˈʁɛ.ʒju/
/w/ may or may not be maintained in the diphthong /ow/ parentheses sou/ˈso(w)/

Stress

  • Monosyllabic words should include a stress mark if they are stressed in sentences (si/ˈsi/ but se/si/).
  • Secondary stress marks are optional, but recommended.

Sandhi

Sandhi should not be noted in pronunciations of individual words, as it is entirely predictable.

Metaphony

Metaphony is the variation between /o/ in the masculine singular of a noun or adjective and /ɔ/ in other forms. Some examples are:

  • ovo (egg) /ˈo.vu/, plural ovos /ˈɔ.vus/
  • novo (new) /ˈno.vu/, feminine singular nova /ˈnɔ.vɐ/, masculine plural novos /ˈnɔ.vus/, feminine plural novas /ˈnɔ.vɐs/
  • porco (pig) /ˈpoʁ.ku/, feminine singular porca (female pig, sow) /ˈpɔʁ.kɐ/, masculine plural porcos /ˈpɔʁ.kus/, feminine plural porcas /ˈpɔʁ.kɐs/

The occurrence of metaphony is not predictable; it occurs in several words with stressed o, but not all of them. it can be noted using |meta=1 in {{pt-noun}} and {{pt-adj}}, and adds nouns to Category:Portuguese nouns with metaphony and adjectives to Category:Portuguese adjectives with metaphony.

Dialects

European Portuguese

The "standard" European Portuguese is characterized by:

  • Monophthongization of /ow/ in <ou> to /o/ (e.g.: ouro: [ˈo.ɾu], ouvir: [o.ˈviɾ]).[1][2] (conserved in Northern Portugal dialects)
  • Realization of /ej/ in <ei> as /ɐj/ (e.g.: ceifar: [sɐj.ˈfaɾ], feito: [ˈfɐj.tu])[3] (characteristic of the Lisbon dialect that spread to the rest of the country)
  • Realization of /ẽj/ and /ɛ̃j/ in /<ens> and <ém>/<éns> as /ɐ̃j/ (e.g.: bem: [ˈbɐ̃j], vens: [ˈvɐ̃jʃ])[4] (characteristic of the Lisbon dialect that spread to the rest of the country)

Northern Portugal

Northern European Portuguese dialects are characterized by:

  • Conservation the diphthong /ej/ in <ei>, instead of realizing it as /ɐj/ (e.g.: ceifar: [sej.ˈfaɾ], feito: [ˈfej.tu])[3]
  • Conservation the diphthong /ow/ in <ou>, instead of reducing it to /o/ (e.g.: ouro: [ˈow.ɾu], ouvir: [ow.ˈβiɾ]).[1][2]
  • Conservation of the betacism /b/ in <v>, instead of /v/ (e.g.: chuva: [ˈt͡ʃu.βɐ], vela: [ˈbɛ.lɐ]).[5]
  • Conservation of the affricate /t͡ʃ/ in <ch>, instead of reducing it to /ʃ/ (e.g.: chuva: [ˈt͡ʃu.βɐ], chamar: [t͡ʃɐ.ˈmaɾ]).[5]

Central Portugal

Central European Portuguese dialects are characterized by:

  • Conservation the diphthong /ej/ in <ei>, instead of realizing it as /ɐj/ (e.g.: ceifar: [sej.ˈfaɾ], feito: [ˈfej.tu])[3]
Lisbon

Some peculiarities of the dialect from Lisbon are not considered standard:[6]

  • Diphthongization of final /i.u/ in <io> to /iw/ (e.g.: rio: [ˈʁiw], frio: [ˈfɾiw])

Southern Portugal

Southern European Portugal dialects comprise the Alentejan and Algarvian Portuguese. They are characterized by:

  • Monophthongization of /ej/ in <ei> to /e/ (e.g.: ceifar: [se.ˈfaɾ], feito: [ˈfe.tu]).[2][5][3]

Notes

  • Due to the recentness of this page’s creation, not every entry conforms to its guidelines. Users are encouraged to correct nonstandard IPA transcriptions, tag them with {{attention|pt|nonstandard pronunciation}}, or inform another user about them.
  • Some symbols are used in broad transcriptions even though they are usually considered allophones of another phoneme. The reasons for this are: they are traditionally used in broad transcriptions by other resources; preventing users from sounding foreign when not using that allophone sounds incorrect; in exceptional instances they are a distinct phoneme.

来源参考(References)


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