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【Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/bʰer-】在多语言下的意思、翻译、词源、用法、例句

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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European

Root

*bʰer- (imperfective)[1]

  1. to bear, carry

衍生词(Derived terms)

  • *bʰér-e-ti (thematic root present)
  • *bʰér-ye-ti (ye-present)
    • Albanian: *berja (see there for further descendants)
  • *bʰér-ti-s (the act of carrying, bearing)
  • *bʰor-éye-ti (causative-iterative)
  • *bʰr̥-yé-ti (yé-present)[2]
    • Germanic: *burjaną (see there for further descendants)
  • *bʰṓr (thief)
  • *bʰor-id-eh₂[3]
    • Italic: *for(i)dā
      • Latin: forda (cow in calf)
  • *bʰor-éh₂
    • Albanian: *barā[4]
      • Albanian: barrë (burden, load)
    • Hellenic: *pʰorā́
  • *bʰór-o-s
    • Hellenic: *pʰóros
      • Ancient Greek: φόρος (phóros, tribute)
  • *bʰor-ó-s
    • Hellenic: *pʰorós
      • Ancient Greek: φορός (phorós, bearing, carrying, tending)
    • Indo-Iranian: *bʰārás
      • Indo-Aryan: *bʰārás
        • Sanskrit: भार (bhārá-, bearing, carrying, bringing; bestowing, granting; burden, load, weight)
      • Iranian: *bāráh
        • Avestan: 𐬠𐬁𐬭𐬀(bāra)
        • Old Median: *-βārə́h
  • *bʰēr-eh₂[5]
  • *bʰer-h₁dyeh₂[6]
  • *bʰér-ist(H)-o-s[7]
    • Hellenic: *pʰéristos
      • Ancient Greek: φέριστος (phéristos, strongest-carrying ?)
    • Indo-Iranian: *bʰárištʰas
      • Iranian: *bárištah
        • Avestan: 𐬠𐬀𐬌𐬭𐬌𐬱𐬙𐬀(bairišta, helping best, voc.)
  • *bʰor-mo-
    • Germanic: *barmaz (see there for further descendants)
    • Hellenic: *pʰormos
  • *bʰér-mn̥ ~ *bʰr̥-mén-s
    • Hellenic: *pʰérmə
      • Ancient Greek: φέρμᾰ (phérma, fruit of the womb/earth)[8]
    • Indo-Iranian: *bʰárma
  • *bʰer-H-men[9]
    • Balto-Slavic:
      • Slavic: *bèrmę (load, burden) (see there for further descendants)
    • Indo-Iranian: *bʰárHmā
  • *bʰér-tr-o-m
    • Hellenic: *pʰértron
      • Ancient Greek: φέρτρον (phértron), φέρετρον (phéretron, bier, litter, frame)[8]
  • *bʰer-n-éh₂
    • Hellenic: *pʰernā́
      • Ancient Greek: φερνή (phernḗ, dowry)[10]
  • *bʰer-n-yo-m
  • *bʰer-no-
    • Armenian:
    • Balto-Slavic:
      • Latgalian: bārns (child)
      • Latvian: bērns (child)
      • Lituanian: bernas (young, unmarried man; child; boy; servant)
      • Sudovian: barnaj (children)
  • *bʰor-n-eh₂
    • Albanian: *barnā[12]
      • Albanian: barrë (pregnancy; foetus, child)
  • *bʰor-no-m[13]
    • Germanic: *barną (see there for further descendants)
  • *bʰor-uko-[14]
    • Albanian: *báruka
      • Albanian: bark (belly, abdomen, womb)
    • Illyrian: *βαρυκα
  • *bʰr̥-tew-no-
  • *h₂ed-bʰer-[15][16]
    • Celtic: *adbertā
      • Old Irish: ad-opair ((s)he sacrifices)[15][16]
      • Old Welsh: aperth (animal sacrifice, offering, prayer)[15][16]
      • Breton: aberzh
    • *h₂ed-bʰer-tōr
      • Italic: *adfertōr
        • Umbrian: arsfertur, arsfetur (priest)[15][16]
    • *h₂ed-bʰer-e-ti
  • Unsorted formations:
    • Albanian:
    • Germanic: *bringaną[18] (probably) (see there for further descendants)
    • Germanic: *buriz (son)[19] (see there for further descendants)
    • Germanic: *burþį̄ (see there for further descendants)
    • Balto-Slavic:
      • Lithuanian: ber̃ždžias, ber̃gždžias (barren (of a cow))
      • Slavic: *bèrďь (pregnant) (see there for further descendants)
    • Hellenic:
      • Ancient Greek: φορεύς (phoreús, bearer)[8]
    • Indo-Aryan
      • Sanskrit: भार (bhārá) (see there for further descendants)
    • Italic:
      • Latin: fordus (pregnant)
Extended form *bʰr-ew-
  • (possibly) *bʰrews- (belly)[20]
    • *bʰrews-o-[21]
    • *bʰrus-on-[20]
      • Celtic: *brusū (belly, abdomen, chest, breast)[20] (see there for further descendants)
    • Unsorted formations:
      • Germanic:
        • *breustą (breast, chest) (see there for further descendants)
        • *brusts (breast, chest) (see there for further descendants)

来源参考(References)

  1. ^ Ringe, Donald (2006) From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic (A Linguistic History of English; 1)‎[1], Oxford: Oxford University Press, →ISBN
  2. ^ Kroonen, Guus (2013) , “*burjan-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 85
  3. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008) , “forda”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 232
  4. ^ Demiraj, Bardhyl (1997) Albanische Etymologien: Untersuchungen zum albanischen Erbwortschatz [Albanian Etymologies: Investigations into the Albanian Inherited Lexicon] (Leiden Studies in Indo-European; 7)‎[2] (in German), Amsterdam, Atlanta: Rodopi, page 92
  5. ^ Kroonen, Guus (2013) , “*bērō-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 61
  6. ^ Trubačóv, Oleg, editor (1974) , “*berdja”, in Etimologičeskij slovarʹ slavjanskix jazykov [Etymological dictionary of Slavic languages] (in Russian), volume 01, Moscow: Nauka, page 188
  7. ^ Beekes, Robert S. P. (2010) , “φέριστος”, in Etymological Dictionary of Greek (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 10), with the assistance of Lucien van Beek, Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 1562
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 Beekes, Robert S. P. (2010) , “φέρω, -ομαι”, in Etymological Dictionary of Greek (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 10), with the assistance of Lucien van Beek, Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, pages 1562–1563
  9. ^ Derksen, Rick (2008) , “*bèrmę”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Slavic Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 4), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 37
  10. ^ Beekes, Robert S. P. (2010) , “φερνή”, in Etymological Dictionary of Greek (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 10), with the assistance of Lucien van Beek, Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 1562
  11. ^ Beekes, Robert S. P. (2010) , “φέρνιον”, in Etymological Dictionary of Greek (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 10), with the assistance of Lucien van Beek, Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 1562
  12. ^ Orel, Vladimir (1998) , “barrë”, in Albanian Etymological Dictionary, Leiden, Boston, Cologne: Brill, →ISBN, page 19
  13. ^ Kroonen, Guus (2013) , “*barna-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 53
  14. ^ Orel, Vladimir (1998) , “bark”, in Albanian Etymological Dictionary, Leiden, Boston, Cologne: Brill, →ISBN, page 18
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 15.3 Mallory, J. P.; Adams, D. Q., editors (1997) , “Sacrifice”, in Encyclopedia of Indo-European culture, London, Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, page 496
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 16.3 Mallory, J. P.; Adams, D. Q. (2006) The Oxford Introduction to Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European World (Oxford Linguistics), New York: Oxford University Press, →ISBN, page 413
  17. ^ Orel, Vladimir (1998) , “bir”, in Albanian Etymological Dictionary, Leiden, Boston, Cologne: Brill, →ISBN, page 26
  18. ^ Kroonen, Guus (2013) , “*bringan-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 77
  19. ^ Kroonen, Guus (2013) , “*buri-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 85
  20. 20.0 20.1 20.2 Matasović, Ranko (2009) , “*bruson-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Celtic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 9), Leiden: Brill, →ISBN, page 81
  21. 21.0 21.1 Derksen, Rick (2008) , “*bŗȗxo; *bŗȗxъ”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Slavic Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 4), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 63

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